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UK investigates dietary management of constipation new
      #183763 - 06/05/05 05:45 PM
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UK investigates dietary management of constipation

4/02/2005 - UK researchers are to investigate how dietary changes could help people better manage constipation in the biggest study on the condition ever undertaken.

Constipation affects one in five older people and the burden on healthcare resources is expected to increase as the proportion of older people in the population rises.
In Britain, it leads to nearly half a million doctor's consultations each year and doctors prescribe more drugs for the condition than they do for patients with diabetes or high blood pressure, costing UK health services £50 million each year.

Yet it has largely been overlooked for major health studies.

The new research, to be carried out at the University of Newcastle upon Tyne on nearly 2,000 patients aged over 55, is backed by £650,000 in government funding.

It will examine how effectively patients can manage their constipation by making changes to their diet and lifestyle. The usual method of treating constipation is to prescribe laxatives.

Results to determine the most cost-effective way of managing constipation will be used by the government to inform the treatment of constipation by health professionals nationwide.


http://www.nutraingredients.com/news/ng.asp?id=58319

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Fruit, vegetable juices may stall Alzheimer's disease new
      #187577 - 06/20/05 04:16 PM
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Fruit, vegetable juices may stall Alzheimer's disease


Certain polyphenols abundant in fruit and vegetable juices may play an important role in delaying the onset of Alzheimer's disease, reports Dominique Patton.

Amy Borenstein from the University of South Florida said yesterday that her team had found a 75 per cent reduced risk of the disease among elderly people who drank fruit or vegetable juices at least three times per week compared with those who drank these juices less than once a week.
There was no apparent dementia-related benefit from dietary or supplemental vitamin E, C or beta-carotene intake, she added.

The research was presented at the US-based Alzheimer's Association's first conference on prevention of dementia, running in Washington this week (abstract 05-A-103-ALZ-PC).

There are nearly 18 million people with dementia in the world and the most common cause of this dementia is Alzheimer's disease. By 2025 this figure will rise to 34 million, with 71 per cent of these likely to live in developing countries, making the need for prevention of the uncurable disease crucial.

Ageing populations and increasing overweight are driving incidence of the disease upwards.

The Florida researchers studied more than 1,800 older Japanese American men and women from the Kame Project in Seattle, in which participants were dementia-free at the onset of the study and were followed for up to nine years.

Dietary consumption was determined using a food frequency questionnaire given at the beginning of the study that provided information on intake of fruits, vegetables, tea, wine, and fruit and vegetable juices.

The accumulation of reactive oxygen species in the brain are thought to exhaust antioxidant capacity and lead to the onset or progression of Alzheimer's.

Antioxidant vitamins, particularly vitamin E from dietary fruits and vegetables, has been associated with delayed onset of the disease, although there is little evidence to date that supplements can offer the same benefit.

But animal studies have found that a number of polyphenols from juices have stronger protection for neuronal cells against oxidation than vitamins E and C.

"These findings suggest that something as simple as incorporating more fruit and vegetable juices into our diet may have a significant impact on our brain health," Borenstein said.

The results could lead to a new avenue of inquiry in the prevention of Alzheimer's, the researchers added.

Another poster presentation at the conference found that moderate alcohol consumption could also influence onset of the disease, confirming previous studies showing a benefit from wine in particular.

Author Mark Sager from the University of Wisconsin-Madison medical school said: "These findings contribute to the growing body of evidence that health and lifestyle variables in middle age may be associated with the subsequent risk of developing Alzheimer's in later life."


http://www.nutraingredients.com/news/news-ng.asp?n=60755-fruit-vegetable-juices

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IBS Sufferers Hypersensitive to Common Foods new
      #190707 - 06/30/05 04:05 PM
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IBS Sufferers Hypersensitive to Common Foods

LONDON--Research indicates sufferers of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) may be hypersensitive to antigens contained in wheat, beef, pork and lamb, according to a study in the July issue of the American Journal of Gastroenterology [epub ahead of print].

British researchers studied the effects of 16 common foods in 108 IBS patients (52 diarrhea-predominant; 32 constipation-predominant; 24 alternating) and 43 controls using IgG4 and IgE titers and skin prick testing (SPT). Data results and patients' IBS symptoms were correlated.

Researchers found IBS patients had significantly higher IgG4 titers to wheat, beef, pork and lamb compared to controls. These differences were maintained across all three subgroups. Antibody titers to potatoes, rice, fish, chicken, yeast, tomato and shrimps were not significantly different and no significant difference in IgE titers was observed between IBS and controls. No correlation was seen between the pattern of elevated IgG4 antibody titers and patients' symptoms, such as pain bloating and stool frequency.

Researchers concluded serum elevated IgG4 antibodies to wheat, beef, pork and lamb may be the result of physiological damage caused by IBS.

"The response to exclusion diet based on elevated food-specific IgG4 in future studies may be useful in establishing the significance of these findings," wrote the study authors.

http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1572-0241.2005.41348.x

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Utility of Glycemic Index / Glycemic Load Questioned new
      #212998 - 09/13/05 01:10 PM
HeatherAdministrator

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A carefully controlled study designed to evaluate the influence of glycemic index/glycemic load (GI/GL) on glycemic response, appetite and food intake was published in the September 2005 issue of Diabetes Care. The researchers set out to either prove or disprove the believe held by some that diets with high GI/GL enhance appetite and promote weight gain. This is one of the first studies to control for other meal characteristics that are known to affect glycemic response (GR). These include the duration, nutrient composition, energy density, volume or weight, consistency and palatability of the meal. This study evaluated the effects of consuming high- and low-GI/GL meals on blood glucose and insulin, appetite and food intake.



The results indicated that there were no significant differences in plasma glucose or insulin responses, appetite ratings or food intake between treatments. This show that the glycemic response of foods tested in isolation does not hold true when meals are consumed ad lib over time. In other words the GI/GL of food is inconsequential in normal eating conditions.



Because appetite and intake are governed by a large array of food properties, attributing the treatment effects to the GI value of foods is very difficult. Many of the studies that have linked the two have not incorporated control subjects. As a result there is no way of knowing if the appetite and intake were affected by other factors. The above study sought to address many of these potentially confounding factors. These findings raise questions about the predictive power of the GI of a specific food or diet for either appetite or dietary responses


Source: Diabetes Care, volume 28, number 9, September 2005

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Carbonated Soft Drink Consumption and Risk of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma new
      #236736 - 01/08/06 04:40 PM
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Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Vol. 98, No. 1, 72-75, January 4, 2006

Articles by Mayne, S. T.
Articles by Fraumeni, J. F.

© The Author 2006. Published by Oxford University Press.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Carbonated Soft Drink Consumption and Risk of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

Susan T. Mayne, Harvey A. Risch, Robert Dubrow, Wong-Ho Chow, Marilie D. Gammon, Thomas L. Vaughan, Lauren Borchardt, Janet B. Schoenberg, Janet L. Stanford, A. Brian West, Heidi Rotterdam, William J. Blot, Joseph F. Fraumeni, Jr.

Affiliations of authors: Yale University School of Medicine and Yale Cancer Center, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, New Haven, CT (STM, HAR, RD, LB); National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, NIH, DHHS, Bethesda, MD (W-HC, JFF); University of North Carolina, School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, Chapel Hill, NC (MDG); Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Program in Epidemiology, and University of Washington, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Department of Epidemiology, Seattle, WA (TLV, JLS); New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services, Center for Cancer Initiatives, Trenton, NJ (JBS); Columbia University, Department of Pathology, New York, NY (HR); New York University Medical Center, Department of Pathology, New York, NY (ABW); International Epidemiology Institute, Rockville, MD (WJB)


Carbonated soft drinks (CSDs) have been associated with gastroesophageal reflux, an established risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma. As both CSD consumption and esophageal adenocarcinoma incidence have sharply increased in recent decades, we examined CSD as a risk factor for esophageal and gastric cancers in a U.S. multicenter, population-based case-control study. Associations between CSD intake and risk were estimated by adjusted odds ratios (ORs), comparing the highest versus lowest quartiles of intake.

All statistical tests were two-sided. Contrary to the proposed hypothesis, CSD consumption was inversely associated with esophageal adenocarcinoma risk (highest versus lowest quartiles, OR = 0.47, 95% confidence interval = 0.29 to 0.76; Ptrend = .005), due primarily to intake of diet CSD.

High CSD consumption did not increase risk of any esophageal or gastric cancer subtype in men or women or when analyses were restricted to nonproxy interviews. These findings indicate that CSD consumption (especially diet CSD) is inversely associated with risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma, and thus it is not likely to have contributed to the rising incidence rates.

http://jncicancerspectrum.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/jnci%3b98/1/72

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Organic Diets Significantly Lower Children’s Dietary Exposure to Organophosphorus Pesticides new
      #236761 - 01/08/06 05:21 PM
HeatherAdministrator

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Organic Diets Significantly Lower Children's
Dietary Exposure to Organophosphorus Pesticides

Chensheng Lu, Kathryn Toepel, Rene Irish,
Richard A. Fenske, Dana B. Barr, and Roberto Bravo

doi:10.1289/ehp.8418 (available at http://dx.doi.org/)

Online 1 September 2005

The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
National Institutes of Health

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

ehponline.org

Abstract
We utilized a novel study design to measure dietary organophosphorus pesticide exposure in a group of 23 elementary school-age children through urinary biomonitoring.

We substituted most of children's conventional diets with organic food items for 5 consecutive days, and collected two, first morning and before the bedtime voids, daily
spot urine samples throughout the 15-day study period. We found that the median urinary concentrations of the specific metabolites for malathion and chlorpyrifos
decreased to the non-detect levels immediately after the introduction of organic diets and remained non-detectable until the conventional diets were re-introduced. The median
concentrations for other organophosphorus pesticide metabolites were also lower in the organic diet consumption days, however, the detection of those metabolites were not
frequent enough to show any statistical significance. In conclusion, we were able to demonstrate that an organic diet provides a dramatic and immediate protective effect
against exposures to organophosphorus pesticides that are commonly used in agricultural production. We also concluded that these children were most likely exposed to these
organophosphorus pesticides exclusively through their diet. To our knowledge this is the first study to employ a longitudinal design with a dietary intervention to assess children's exposure to pesticides. It provides new and persuasive evidence of the effectiveness of this intervention.

http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/docs/2005/8418/abstract.html

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No evidence that soy estrogens increase cancer risk new
      #243408 - 02/01/06 11:53 AM
HeatherAdministrator

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NO EVIDENCE THAT SOY ESTROGENS INCREASE CANCER RISK

Unlike traditional estrogen therapy, studies suggest that a diet high in the natural plant estrogens found in soy does not increase the risk of uterine cancer in postmenopausal women according to Mark Cline, associate professor of comparative medicine at Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center.

Soy plants contain estrogen-like compounds called isoflavones or phytoestrogens. These plant estrogens are thousands of times weaker than the estrogen produced by the body but may be present in much higher concentrations in the blood. Evidence about the safety of soy isoflavones has been mixed. It is known that populations typically consuming high soy diets have much lower rates of uterine cancer.

Dr. Cline reported that preliminary results from a two-year study of 375 women half of whom consumed 58mg of soy isoflavones per day and the other half a placebo. No relationship between the soy and endometrial proliferation was shown. Investigators at other institutions have made similar findings.

Source: Today's Dietitian 12-05


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Dietary means of diagnosing IBS new
      #243418 - 02/01/06 12:10 PM
HeatherAdministrator

Reged: 12/09/02
Posts: 7795
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Gut. 2006 Jan 24; [Epub ahead of print] Related Articles, Links


Meal-induced recto-sigmoid tone modification: a low-caloric meal accurately separates functional and organic gastrointestinal disease patients.

Di Stefano M, Miceli E, Missanelli A, Mazzocchi S, Corazza G.

I Department of Medicine, University of Pavia, IRCCS S.Matteo Hospital, Italy.

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome is based on arbitrary criteria due to the lack of an accurate diagnostic test. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether recto-sigmoid tone modification after a meal represents an accurate diagnostic approach. METHODS: In a secondary care setting, 32 constipation-predominant and 24 diarrhoea-predominant IBS patients, 10 functional diarrhoea and 10 functional constipation patients, 29 organic gastrointestinal disease patients and 10 healthy volunteers underwent a rectal barostat test in order to measure fasting and post- prandial recto-sigmoid tone. Recto-sigmoid response was assessed following three meals containing different amounts of calories, 200 Kcal, 400 Kcal and 1000 Kcal. RESULTS: After 200 Kcal, healthy volunteers and patients with organic diseases showed a reduction of recto-sigmoid volume of at least 28% of fasting volume, indicating a meal-induced increase of muscle tone. On the contrary, patients with diarrhoea-predominant IBS showed a dilation of the recto-sigmoid colon, indicative of reduced tone and patients with constipation-predominant IBS showed a mild volume reduction or no modification. Functional diarrhoea and constipation patients showed recto-sigmoid tone modification resembling that of the corresponding IBS subtype. A 400 Kcal meal normalized recto-sigmoid tone in more than half the constipation- predominant IBS patients but none of the diarrhoea- predominant IBS patients. On the contrary, a 1000 Kcal meal normalized tone response in all IBS patients. Sensitivity of the test was 100%, specificity 93%, positive predictive value 96% and negative predictive value 100%. CONCLUSION: A post-prandial reduction of recto- sigmoid tone of at least 28% of fasting value after a low- caloric meal accurately separates organic and functional gastrointestinal disease patients. This parameter may, therefore, be used in the positive diagnosis of IBS.

PMID: 16434428

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Influence of alcohol consumption on IBS and dyspepsia new
      #288019 - 10/26/06 10:39 AM
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Influence of alcohol consumption on IBS and dyspepsia

Authors: halder, s. l. s.1; locke, g. r2; schleck, c. d.3; zinsmeister, a. r.3; talley, n. j.2

Source: Neurogastroenterology and Motility, Volume 18, Number 11, November 2006, pp. 1001-1008(8)

Publisher: Blackwell Publishing

The role of alcohol use in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and dyspepsia is not well understood. We hypothesised that people with psychological distress who drink no alcohol, or excess alcohol, are at increased risk of having IBS or dyspepsia.

Valid gastrointestinal (GI) symptom surveys were mailed to randomly selected cohorts of community residents. Associations between IBS, dyspepsia and abdominal pain and alcohol use were assessed using logistic regression adjusted for a Somatic Symptom Checklist score (SSC).

A total of 4390 (80%) responded; of these, 10.5% reported IBS, 2% dyspepsia and 22% abdominal pain. Alcohol consumption of greater than 7 drinks per week was associated with a greater odds for dyspepsia and frequent abdominal pain but not IBS. However, significant interactions among gender, alcohol use and SSC scores were detected.


In females with a low SSC score, consuming alcohol greater than 7 drinks per week increased the odds of IBS compared to drinking alcohol moderately. Alcohol consumption was associated with dyspepsia and abdominal pain. A relationship with IBS was identified when interactions with somatization and gender were appropriately considered.

Whether these associations are due to the effects of alcohol on the gut, or a common central mechanism remains to be determined.

http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/bsc/ngem/2006/00000018/00000011/art00007;jsessionid=4581hohm0t37d.victoria

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Abnormalities of GI transit in bloated irritable bowel syndrome: effect of bran
      #292155 - 12/01/06 02:08 PM
HeatherAdministrator

Reged: 12/09/02
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Abnormalities of GI transit in bloated irritable bowel syndrome: effect of bran on transit and symptoms.

Hebden JM, Blackshaw E, D'Amato M, Perkins AC, Spiller RC.

Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital Nottingham, United Kingdom.

OBJECTIVES: Bloating is an important but poorly understood symptom in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) that is often aggravated by bran. The aim of our study was to determine whether IBS patients with bloating responded to bran differently from healthy controls.

METHODS: A total of 12 patients with IBS (according to Rome I criteria), all with moderate to severe bloating, and 12 healthy controls participated in a two way, double blind, randomized, cross-over trial of bran versus placebo (crushed biscuits) 15 g b.i.d. An average daily pain index and bloating score were derived from daily symptom diaries. On day 14, gastric emptying, small bowel transit, percent remaining in ascending colon, and geometric center of a meal marker at 24 h were calculated from scintigraphic images obtained after ingesting a Tc99m-labeled rice pudding meal with 15 g of either placebo or coarse bran. RESULTS: Results are given as median (range). Bran significantly increased the pain index and bloating (p < 0.02) in IBS patients but not controls. The most striking finding was that the small bowel transit time of the meal without bran was markedly faster in IBS patients than in controls, being 203 min (range 109-313) versus 367 min (219-543), p < 0.001. Although in controls bran accelerated small bowel transit time to 262 min (180-380), p = 0.03, and significantly reduced % remaining in the ascending colon from 22% (0-46) to 3% (0-25), p = 0.03, this was not seen in the IBS patients. Bran accelerated whole gut transit as assessed by geometric center at 24 h in both IBS patients and controls.

CONCLUSIONS: Bran accelerates small bowel transit and ascending colon clearance without causing symptoms in controls. Small bowel transit is rapid in IBS patients with bloating and, unlike in healthy control subjects, cannot be further accelerated by bran, which nevertheless aggravates symptoms of pain and bloating. We speculate that bran-induced bloating may originate in the colon rather than the small bowel.

PMID: 12358250 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Am J Gastroenterol. 2002 Sep;97(9):2315-20.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?itool=abstractplus&db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=abstractplus&list_uids=12358250

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