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Nutrition experts push trans fats ban - Say trans-fats are disastrous for your health. new
      #73264 - 05/25/04 12:08 PM
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Nutrition experts push trans fats ban - Say trans-fats are disastrous for your health.

20/05/2004 A campaign is being launched to purge these molecules called trans-fatty acids, or "trans-fats" from the United States` cakes, snacks and fast foods.

Small quantities of trans-fats occur naturally in meats and dairy products, but most arrive in our stomachs through processed foods. They are manufactured by pumping hydrogen into vegetable oils to create partially hydrogenated oils and solid margarines.

Such fats are preferred by industry because they are versatile and last longer. But nutrition experts say trans-fats are disastrous for your health. Whereas saturated fats raise both `bad` low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and `good` high density lipoproteins (HDL), trans-fats boost LDL without affecting HDL, increasing the risk of heart disease.

Nutritional guidelines have long advocated cutting back on the saturated fatty acids found in meat and dairy products, and boosting unsaturated fats abundant in nuts, seeds and vegetable oils.

But trans-fats have taken longer to attract attention because their effects on health were less clear.

Evidence for the harmful effects of trans-fats has mounted, however. In 2002, a US expert committee charged with making nutritional recommendations concluded that there was no level of trans-fats in the diet that could be deemed safe.

A US nutritional group called the Center for Science in the Public Interest, based in Washington DC, now hopes that its TransFreeAmerica campaign will raise awareness of the health concerns. It is urging food manufacturers to eliminate trans-fats and advising consumers to boycott foods containing them. It is also calling on the US Food and Drug Administration to outlaw partially hydrogenated vegetable oils.

The plan is likely to meet resistance from some food industry members reluctant to change existing supply and production processes, predicts Turner. "It`s difficult to think we would ever get completely trans-fat free," she says.

Some countries and companies have already made moves to cut trans-fats. In 2003, the Danish government issued regulations slashing the amount allowed in foods.

In the United States, some food manufacturers such as Kraft Foods and McCain are scaling back the amount of trans-fats in their products. And from 2006, food companies will be required to list the amount of trans-fat on nutrition labels, so that consumers can choose what to buy.

The new campaign, "may accelerate the rate at which the industry moves," says nutrition expert Alice Lichtenstein of Tufts University in Boston. But it is important that trans-fats are replaced with healthy alternatives, she points out, such as plant oils rather than butter.


http://www.foodingredientsfirst.com/newsmaker_article.asp?idNewsMaker=5737&fSite=AO545

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Too Much Drinking Could Serve Up Colon Cancer new
      #73272 - 05/25/04 12:18 PM
HeatherAdministrator

Reged: 12/09/02
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Too Much Drinking Could Serve Up Colon Cancer

MONDAY, April 19 (HealthDayNews) -- People who drink more than three glasses of wine, beer or liquor a day may increase their risk of colorectal cancer by 40 percent.

That's the claim of a Brigham and Women's Hospital study in the April 20 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.

Consuming two average-size alcoholic drinks a day was associated with a small increased risk for colorectal cancer.

In this study, researchers analyzed data from eight studies that tracked nearly half a million people for up to 16 years. This new study is one of the largest to show that any kind of alcohol can influence a person's risk of colorectal cancer.

"The alcohol debate can certainly be a confusing one for patients, especially given alcohol's apparent protective effect on heart disease," study author Eunyoung Cho said in a prepared statement.

"Examining how alcohol is associated with other diseases like colorectal cancer is helpful for patients trying to balance the healthful effects of alcohol against the potential risks," Cho said.

http://www.principalhealthnews.com/article/hscoutn/103695010;jsessionid=H240CK4NISUDWCTYAEPENAQ

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Cancer Society Promotes Disease with Beef Fundraisers, Say Doctors new
      #73287 - 05/25/04 12:37 PM
HeatherAdministrator

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PCRM Launches National Campaign Calling for End to American Cancer Society "Cattle Barons' Ball" Events

Cancer Society Promotes Disease with Beef Fundraisers, Say Doctors

WASHINGTON – The Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM) is calling on the American Cancer Society to put an end to its "Cattle Barons' Ball" events – beef-themed fundraisers promoting the very disease the cancer research and prevention giant is committed to curing.

The fundraisers feature Western and cowboy themes, including "chuck wagons" loaded with beef and other meats. More than 30 are held each year, mostly in the South and Southwest, almost two-thirds of them in Texas and Florida.

PCRM Nutrition Director Amy Joy Lanou, Ph.D., has written to the local organizers of the ACS-sponsored Cattle Barons events across the country urging them to either cancel or find new themes. As part of its campaign – "Cancer: It's What's for Dinner at the Cattle Barons' Ball" – PCRM has launched a nationwide e-mail write-in effort calling on American Cancer Society CEO John Seffrin, Ph.D. and ACS chapters to call off or re-theme these events. An e-mail "postcard" can be sent to Dr. Seffrin by going to PCRM's Web site www.AmericanCancerSocietyPromotesDisease.org/letter.html. Dates and full contact information on all upcoming Cattle Barons' Ball events are here as well.

"It is irresponsible of the American Cancer Society to sponsor events that promote beef consumption," said Lanou. "For more than 20 years, major scientific studies have linked beef and other meats with increased risk of cancer, particularly colorectal cancers."

A 1990 Harvard University study published in the New England Journal of Medicine linked regular meat consumption with a three-fold increase in colon cancer risk and a higher risk of cancer overall. Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States for both men and women.

Lanou notes that the American Cancer Society is well aware of the association between meat and cancer.

"Recommendations to limit the consumption of red meat appear frequently in ACS educational materials, news reports, and on the ACS Web site. Given this, it is wholly inappropriate for the American Cancer Society to sponsor fund-raisers that promote the eating of beef," she said. "The ACS is condemning millions of Americans to a battle with a deadly, often incurable disease."

http://pcrm.org/news/issues040329.html

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Bad news for low-carb dieters new
      #73293 - 05/25/04 12:41 PM
HeatherAdministrator

Reged: 12/09/02
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Loc: Seattle, WA

May 18 , 2004

CONTACT: Jeanne Stuart McVey, 202-686-2210, ext. 316, jeannem@pcrm.org

New Studies Reveal Cholesterol and Weight Concerns for Low-Carb Dieters

* One-third of Low-Carb Dieters Show Marked Rise in "Bad" Cholesterol

* Diet's Weight-Loss Benefits Fade after Six Months

* Doctors Call on DHHS Secretary Tommy Thompson to Evaluate Risks

Washington, D.C.—Two new studies published in the May 18, 2004, Annals of Internal Medicine provide bad news for low-carb dieters, say doctors for the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine. The first, conducted at Duke University, showed that "bad" (LDL) cholesterol levels rose significantly in 30 percent of low-carbohydrate dieters. The second, conducted at the Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center, showed that weight lost during low-carb dieting started to return after six months.

Normally, weight loss causes cholesterol levels to fall. However, some low-carb dieters have experienced the opposite effect—significant increases of cholesterol levels. In the Duke University study, two study participants dropped out because of high levels of LDL ("bad") cholesterol: One had an increase in LDL cholesterol from 182 mg/dl to 219 mg/dl in four weeks; the second had an increase from 184 mg/dl to 283 mg/dl in three months. Normal levels are < 100 mg/dl. A third participant developed chest pain and was subsequently diagnosed with coronary heart disease. In all, 45 people followed the low-carb diet for 6 months. But 30 percent of them had an LDL cholesterol increase of more than 10 percent.

In the Philadelphia study, low-carb dieters lost substantial amounts of weight over the first six months. But after that point, the average weight began to climb so that weight loss after one year (11.2 pounds) was not significantly better than that seen with other diets. Two study participants on the low-carb diet died, one from hyperosmolar coma five months into the study, and the second from severe ischemic cardiomyopathy ten months into the study.

"This new evidence confirms that levels of "bad" cholesterol worsen in a substantial number of low-carbohydrate dieters," said PCRM resident Neal D. Barnard, M.D. "And the supposedly dramatic benefits of the diet do not hold up over the long term." A 2003 study conducted at the University of Pennsylvania showed that low-carb dieters began to regain lost weight after six months. The new results confirm these findings.

PCRM is urging the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services, Tommy Thompson, to convene a panel to investigate the potential adverse effects of low-carbohydrate diets on cholesterol levels, as well as on calcium losses, another problem observed in recent low-carbohydrate diet studies.

For an interview with Dr. Barnard or another PCRM nutrition expert, please call Jeanne Stuart McVey at 202-686-2210, ext. 316 or 415-509-1833 or jeannem@pcrm.org .

Founded in 1985, the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine is a nonprofit health organization that promotes preventive medicine, especially good nutrition. PCRM also conducts clinical research studies, opposes unethical human experimentation, and promotes alternatives to animal research.

http://pcrm.org/news/issues040517.html


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GI HEALTH AFFECTED BY CONSUMPTION OF COFFEE AND CARBONATED DRINKS new
      #76347 - 06/04/04 06:30 PM
HeatherAdministrator

Reged: 12/09/02
Posts: 7795
Loc: Seattle, WA

CONTACT: Monday, May 17, 1:00 pm CDT Kellie Hanzak, 202-955-6222 khanzak@spectrumscience.com Jessica Willocks, 301-941-2625 jwillocks@gastro.org

In New Orleans: Morial Convention Center 504-670-6420

GI HEALTH AFFECTED BY CONSUMPTION OF COFFEE AND CARBONATED DRINKS

Though Some Gain Liver Benefits from Coffee, Soda Drinkers at Increased Risk for Cancer

New Orleans, LA – According to new research presented today at Digestive Disease Week, drinking caffeinated beverages may benefit some people who are at high-risk for liver disease. Conversely, a study by researchers from India found that soda drinkers, who represent a huge percentage of the American population, may actually have an increased risk of developing esophageal cancer. DDW is the largest international gathering of physicians, researchers and academics in the fields of gastroenterology, hepatology, endoscopy and gastrointestinal surgery. "This research supports the widespread medical recommendations for healthy eating," said Lee Kaplan, M.D., Ph.D., of Massachusetts General Hospital. "The relationships between diet and disease that these investigators have seen are intriguing and should stimulate further exploration in this important area. It is even more apparent that lifestyle and dietary choices made during youth can have a significant impact on health later in life."

Coffee and Caffeine Consumption Protect Against Liver Injury in the United States Population (Abstract 100766*)

Researchers from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease of the National Institutes of Health are reporting that among people who are at high risk for liver problems, coffee drinking and consumption of other caffeinated beverages may reduce risk of liver disease. The national, population-based study was conducted among 5,944 adult participants of the third U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) who were at high risk for liver injury (due to excessive alcohol consumption, hepatitis B or C, iron overload, obesity, or impaired

2 – 2 – 2 Coffee and Carbonated Drinks glucose metabolism). Participants were asked about consumption of caffeine-containing coffee, tea and soft drinks. The study found an inverse correlation between coffee and caffeine consumption and liver injury, which was classified by abnormal serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity and was seen in approximately 8.7 percent of this high-risk population. In analyses both unadjusted and adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity and cigarette smoking, the prevalence of liver injury declined with increasing coffee drinking and caffeine consumption, though the protective effect was greater for caffeine intake. The correlation was consistent across subgroups when defined by individual risk factors for liver injury, as well as when applied to persons without impaired liver function.

"There is surprisingly little evidence-based information on the influence of diet and nutrition on the course and severity of chronic liver disease," said James Everhart, M.D., M.P.H., co- author of the study. "These results warrant further study."

Rise of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma in USA is Temporally Associated with the Rise in Carbonated Soft Drink Consumption (Abstract 105860*)

Researchers at Tata Memorial Hospital in India have found a strong correlation between the rise in per capita consumption of carbonated soft drinks (CSD) in the past 20 years and the increasing rates of esophageal cancer (ACE) in the United States. Based on available data on diet changes in America from the U.S. Department of Agriculture, per capita consumption of CSD rose by more than 450 percent during the past half-century, from 10.8 gallons in 1946 to 49.2 gallons in 2000. At the same time, in the last 25 years, incidence rates of ACE have risen by more than 570 percent in American white males and continue to increase.

The rise in CSD consumption preceded the rise in cases of ACE by 20 years. A 40 percent increase for each five-year increase in date of birth – a birth cohort effect – was previously reported. Using linear regression to compare trends between CSD and ACE rates, the researchers found a highly significant correlation between the two (r=0.99, 95% CI 0.96-1.0).

3 – 3 – 3 Coffee and Carbonated Drinks Researchers found published data for a strong biological basis to explain the increased dose and duration of esophageal exposure to acid: CSD drinking causes gastric distension that triggers reflux. Consumption of 350 milliliters of CSD per day (approximately one can of soda) corresponds to 53.5 minutes of pH less than four and 53 gallons per year translates to 32,100 more minutes of acid exposure per year. Excess CSD consumption started in childhood and American teenagers drank two cans of CSD per day on average, which can explain the birth cohort effect. White children drank significantly more CSD than black children. In general, identical time trends were seen worldwide, as countries with per capita CSD below 10 gallons (including Eastern Europe, Japan, China, Taiwan, Korea and India, among others) had little increase in the incidence of ACE.

Countries with per capita CSD of more than 20 gallons have seen a rising trend of ACE cases. "The surprisingly strong correlation demonstrates the impact of diet patterns on health trends," said Mohandas Mallath, M.D., lead author on the study. "This study re-emphasizes a general life style dictum that 'if little is good, a lot isn't better.' As the rates may continue to rise for another 20 years, we believe that more epidemiological studies are urgently required to establish the true association."

### Digestive Disease Week (DDW) is the largest international gathering of physicians, researchers and academics in the fields of gastroenterology, hepatology, endoscopy and gastrointestinal surgery. Jointly sponsored by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD), the American Gastroenterological Association (AGA), the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE) and the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract (SSAT), DDW takes place May 15-20, 2004 in New Orleans, Louisiana. The meeting showcases approximately 5,000 abstracts and hundreds of lectures on the latest advances in GI research, medicine and technology. *Abstract numbers listed above correlate to abstract ID numbers listed on the DDW Web site, www.ddw.org. They do not coincide with program numbers as found in the printed DDW Program Guide.

AbstractID – 100766 First Author – Ruhl Institution –

Social & Scientific Systems Coffee and Caffeine Consumption Protect Against Liver Injury in the United States

Population Constance E. Ruhl, James E. Everhart Background & Aims:

The concept that patient behavior may influence the course and severity of chronic liver disease is appealing, but not well investigated. Based on the results of experimental data and epidemiological surveys, we investigated whether coffee drinking and caffeine consumption reduced the risk of liver injury in persons at high risk for liver injury in a national, population-based study. Methods: 5,944 adult participants in the third U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-1994, who were at high risk for liver injury (due to excessive alcohol consumption, hepatitis B or C, iron overload, obesity, or impaired glucose metabolism) were asked about consumption of caffeine-containing coffee, tea, and soft drinks. Total caffeine from these beverages was calculated and divided into quintiles. Liver injury was indicated by abnormal serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity (> 43 U/L). All analyses incorporated sample weights and the design effects of the survey.

Results: Elevated ALT activity was found in 8.7% of this high risk population. In unadjusted analysis, the prevalence of liver injury declined with both increasing coffee drinking and caffeine consumption. (p<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, and cigarette smoking, also demonstrated that the risk of liver injury declined with increasing coffee drinking and caffeine consumption, with the protective effect being stronger for caffeine consumption (table). These relationships were consistent across subgroups defined by individual risk factors for liver injury and relatively unchanged when analyses included all NHANES III participants or when limited to persons without impaired liver function and without right upper quadrant pain.

Conclusion: In this large, national, population-based study, among persons at high risk for liver injury, coffee drinking and caffeine consumption from beverages were associated with lower risk of injury. These possible beneficial effects deserve further investigation. Multivariate-adjusted Logistic Regression Odds Ratios and 95% Confidence Intervals for Elevated ALT OR 95% CI p-value for trend Coffee (cups / day) 0.034 0 1.0 < 1 1.4 0.84 - 2.4 1 - 2 0.83 0.49 - 1.4 > 2 0.56 0.31 - 1.0 Caffeine quintiles (mg / day) < 0.001 < 49 1.0 49 - < 142 0.78 0.49 - 1.3 142 - < 200 0.72 0.41 - 1.2 200 - < 373 0.62 0.35 - 1.1 >=373 0.31 0.16 - 0.61

AbstractID – 105860 First Author – Mallath Institution – Tata Memorial HospitalRise of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma in USA is Temporally Associated With the Rise in Carbonated Soft Drink Consumption. Mohandas K. Mallath

Background and Aims: Incidence rates for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus (ACE) in rose by 570% in American white males in last 25 years and is still continuing to rise. There has been a 40% increase for each 5-year increase in date of birth- a birth cohort effect (El-Serag HB et al. Gut 2002;50:368-372) The reason for this rise remains unexplained. Time-trends in rates of ACE have wide variations world wide. We aimed to identify potential new risk factors that could explain these observations.

Methods: US Department of Agriculture (USDA) data was searched for major changes in the diets of Americans in 5 decades. Per capita carbonated soft drinks (CSD) consumption rose by 450% in USA from 10.8 gallons in 1946 to 53 gallons in 2000. Rise in CSD consumption preceded the rise of ACE by 20 years. Temporal trends between 3-year average of per capita consumption of CSD and incidence of ACE were analyzed by linear regression.

Results: Highly significant correlation was obtained between 3-yearly incidence of ACE (1974-2000) and the 3-yearly per capita consumption of CSD 20 years before (1964-1980); r=0.99, 95%CI 0.92-1.0; p<0.001 r2=0.98. We found strong biological basis to explain increased dose and duration of exposure to acid: 1. Consumption of 350 ml CSD per day corresponds to 53.5 minutes of pH <4 (Shoenut et al. Dig Dis Sci 1998;43:834-39), and 53 gallons per year would mean 32100 more minutes of acid exposure per year. 2. Excess CSD drinking started in childhood and American teenagers drank 2 cans of CSD per day (USDA) explaining the Birth Cohort Effect. 3. Prevalence of H pylori infection in the population fell during the same period to increase endogenous acid secretion. In general identical time trends were seen worldwide. Countries with per capita CSD below 10 gallons (e.g. East Europe, Japan, China, Taiwan, Korea, India, etc) had little increase in the incidence of ACE. Countries with per capita CSD more than 20 gallons are reporting a rising trend of ACE. Scotland with high rates of ACE over England had a 1.8 times higher consumption of CSD.

Conclusion: The linear association between per capita consumption of CSD 20 years before and the incidence of ACE is very strong. A biological explanation exists for this association, which is seen worldwide. The rising rates may continue for another 20 years. These findings are strong enough to initiate good epidemiological studies to establish the true association between CSD consumption and rates of ACE.

James Edgar Everhart, M.D., M.P.H. James Everhart, M.D., M.P.H., currently serves as chief medical officer of the Epidemiology and Clinical Trials Division of Digestive Diseases and Nutrition at the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). His major research interests include digestive diseases, nutrition and epidemiology. Dr. Everhart maintains professional memberships in the Society for Epidemiological Research, the American Gastroenterological Association and the American Association for the Study of Liver Disease. He received the National Institute of Health's Director's Award in 1995 and has co-authored more than 100 articles appearing in publications such as the American Journal of Public Health, Journal of the American Medical Association and Hepatology. Additionally, Dr. Everhart has been invited to more than 30 presentations for organizations including the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute of Health. Dr. Everhart earned his bachelors in chemistry from Duke University and his doctor of medicine from the University of Virginia School of Medicine. He earned his masters in public health from Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health. Dr. Everhart completed his residency in internal medicine at Allentown Affiliated Hospitals.

Mohandas K. Mallath, M.D. Mohandas K. Mallath, M.D., is professor and head of the Department of Digestive Diseases and Clinical Nutrition and officer-in-charge of the Postgraduate Studies Section at Tata Memorial Hospital. His research interests include cancer chemotherapy, familial cancer, medical screening, pre-neoplastic lesions, clinical nutrition, epidemiology, clinical trials and medical ethics. Dr. Mallath maintains membership to the Tata Memorial Hospital Scientific Review Committee, the Ethics Committee and the Infection Control Committee. He is also member of international organizations such as the American College of Gastroenterology and the European Society for Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition. Dr. Mallath is president-elect of the Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy of India. He has had more than 80 peer reviewed articles, authored 20 book chapters and developed more than 90 conference abstracts. Dr. Mallath earned his bachelors degree from Goa Medical College and his medical degree from the University of Bombay. He completed his residency at Goa Medical College and his fellowship in gastroenterology and ICU at Tata Memorial Hospital.

http://www.ddw.org/media/newsReleases/Caffeine.pdf

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Green Tea and Fruits May Have a Large Impact on GI Health new
      #76350 - 06/04/04 06:35 PM
HeatherAdministrator

Reged: 12/09/02
Posts: 7795
Loc: Seattle, WA

CONTACT: Monday, May 17, 1:00 pm CDT
Kellie Hanzak, 202-955-6222 khanzak@spectrumscience.com">khanzak@spectrumscience.com</a> Jessica Willocks, 301-941-2625 <a href="mailto:jwillocks@gastro.org

In New Orleans: Morial Convention Center 504-670-6420

STUDIES INDICATE HEALTHY EATING MAY AFFECT CANCER DEVELOPMENT, IMPROVE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

Research of Eating Behavior, Herbal Extracts, Shows Significant GI Benefits

New Orleans, LA – Making simple dietetic changes, such as incorporating green tea and fruits, may have a large impact on gastrointestinal health, according to new research presented today at Digestive Disease Week in New Orleans. Digestive Disease Week (DDW) is the largest international gathering of physicians, researchers and academics in the fields of gastroenterology, hepatology, endoscopy and gastrointestinal surgery.

"Particularly for children, healthy eating patterns are important for proper GI function and development," said Lee Kaplan, M.D., Ph.D., of Massachusetts General Hospital. "Incorporating a healthy diet into a sound lifestyle can help prevent some of the most common GI-related conditions today."

Mechanism of Cell Growth Inhibition by Green Tea Extract in Barrett's Associated Esophageal Adenocarcinoma (Abstract 103982*)

Previous studies have found that the major polyphenol in green tea extracts, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), has chemopreventive effects on cancers affecting a number of organs in the digestive tract. In this study, researchers at the Harvard Medical School and VA Boston Healthcare System investigated the effects of EGCG on human esophageal cancer cells associated with Barrett's esophagus.

2 – 2 – 2 Healthy Eating
The team found that EGCG inhibits the growth and reproduction of Barrett's esophagus-associated human esophageal adenocarcinoma (cancer) cells (SEG-1 and BIC-1). They concluded that exposure to EGCG induces apoptosis (programmed cell death) and results in increased levels of the proteins caspase-3 and cleaved poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP). In the study, the adenocarcinoma cells were treated with different concentrations of EGCG and monitored for cell growth, method of cell death and changes in apoptotic protein levels. Treatment of cells with EGCG inhibited cell growth and caused signs of early apoptosis at 24 hours. Further studies found that EGCG significantly increased levels of active caspase-3 and cleaved PARP proteins.

"Research suggests that drinking green tea may be both a valuable chemopreventive therapy as well as a treatment for esophageal adenocarcinoma," said Howard Chang, M.D., an investigator of the study. "Our results suggest that extracts in green tea may help to lower the prevalence of esophageal adenocarcinoma, one of the fastest growing cancers in western countries."

Effect of Eating and Nutrients on Recurrent Abdominal Pain in Children: A Population-Based Study (Abstract 103866*)

Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) is a common condition in children and adolescents that is poorly characterized and often misdiagnosed. Researchers from the Baylor College of Medicine examined RAP in children to identify its clinical appearance and found that while it is common among school children, healthy eating habits appear to play a protective role against the condition.

A total of 700 school children completed a questionnaire that ranked RAP into three scales: pain intensity, non-pain symptoms and satisfaction. The overall prevalence of RAP was about one-quarter, with no differences with regard to ethnicity. Based on a pain intensity scale, 60 percent of children reported moderate to severe pain and 45 percent had pain for more than 30 minutes.

Children who ate daily in fast-food restaurants had more frequent episodes of pain than those who ate fast food only once per week. Eating fresh fruits played a protective role against RAP, even for those children who ate two or fewer servings of fruits per week.

3 – 3 – 3 Healthy Eating

"Our study found that abdominal pain is common among school children and can cause interruptions in school activities and lifestyles," said Hoda Malaty, M.D., lead investigator of the study. "But consistent with physician recommendations, we found that healthy eating habits appear to protect the GI tract from these symptoms." With their parents, school children completed a standardized questionnaire concerning socioeconomic parameters and abdominal pain intensity, frequency, duration, nature of RAP and possible relationships with school activities, eating patterns and other upper gastrointestinal symptoms.

Children were identified as having RAP if they met the widely-accepted Apley's Criteria: (1) at least three attacks of pain; (2) pain severe enough to affect activities; (3) attacks occurring over a period of 3 months; and (4) no known organic cause.

### Digestive Disease Week (DDW) is the largest international gathering of physicians, researchers and academics in the fields of gastroenterology, hepatology, endoscopy and gastrointestinal surgery. Jointly sponsored by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD), the American Gastroenterological Association (AGA), the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE) and the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract (SSAT), DDW takes place May 15-20, 2004 in New Orleans, Louisiana. The meeting showcases approximately 5,000 abstracts and hundreds of lectures on the latest advances in GI research, medicine and technology. *Abstract numbers listed above correlate to abstract ID numbers listed on the DDW Web site, www.ddw.org. They do not coincide with program numbers as found in the printed DDW Program Guide.

http://www.ddw.org/media/newsReleases/FoodHerbals.pdf

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High Protein Diet May Affect Female Fertility new
      #88754 - 07/11/04 01:08 PM
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High Protein Diet May Affect Female Fertility

Reuters Health

Monday, June 28, 2004


BERLIN (Reuters) - Eating a high protein diet may make it more difficult for women to conceive, American researchers said on Monday.

Dr David Gardner, of the Colorado Center for Reproductive Medicine in Englewood, said diets containing 25 percent protein disrupt the development of early mice embryos and may have a similar impact in humans.

"Although our investigations were conducted in mice, our data may have implications for diet and reproduction in humans," Gardner told a fertility meeting.

In mice the high protein diet seems to interfere with a genetic process known as imprinting, which controls the activity of genes inherited from the father and mother.

The researchers fed mice a diet of either 25 percent or 14 percent protein for four weeks before mating them. Afterwards they examined 42 of the resulting early embryos, which are known as blastocysts, to see if imprinting for an important growth gene was altered.

They also transferred 174 early embryos into the wombs of mice that were eating a normal diet to study the impact of maternal diet before implantation on fetal development.

"We found only 36 percent of blastocysts developed in mothers on the 25 percent diet showed a normal imprinting pattern, compared to 70 percent in the control group," Gardner explained.

Fewer embryos in the high protein group developed into fetuses - 65 percent compared to 81 percent in the lower protein group.

"These findings, together with similar work carried out in cows means that it would be prudent to advise couples who are trying to conceive...to ensure that the woman's protein intake is less than 20 percent of their total energy consumption," Gardner told the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology.

"The available data certainly indicate that a high protein diet is not advisable while trying to conceive," he added.

But Dr Stuart Trager, the medical director of Atkins Nutritionals Inc, which developed the low-carbohydrate Atkins Diet, said some studies have shown a positive correlation between controlling carbohydrates and female fertility.

"The differences between mice and human embryos have recently been demonstrated by the ability to produce mice embryos from a single parent, a process that cannot be replicated in humans," Trager said in a statement.

"This casts a large discrepancy on the ability to derive conclusions about the clinical implications of this study with regard to humans," he added.

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_18623.html

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Effect of fiber source on Clostridium difficile new
      #88756 - 07/11/04 01:32 PM
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Reged: 12/09/02
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Loc: Seattle, WA

Scand J Gastroenterol. 1994 Oct;29(10):916-22.

Effect of fiber source on short-chain fatty acid production and on the growth and toxin production by Clostridium difficile.

May T, Mackie RI, Fahey GC Jr, Cremin JC, Garleb KA.

Dept. of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana.

BACKGROUND: Fermentable fiber promotes the growth of resident gut microbes, which modify the environment of the gastrointestinal tract and thus prevent colonization by Clostridium difficile. METHODS: An in vitro system with pigs as fecal inoculum donors was used to estimate fiber fermentability and changes in intestinal microbiota. RESULTS: Acetate and propionate production (mumol/mg substrate fermented/day) was greatest for gum arabic (1013.4 and 704.1, respectively); butyrate production was greatest for xylo-oligosaccharide (345.6). Growth of total anaerobes and clostridia was greatest for gum arabic (21.2 and 16.2 x 10(8) counts/ml, respectively) and xylo-oligosaccharides (21.0 and 19.6 x 10(8) respectively); growth of acidogenic bacteria was greatest with fructo-oligosaccharide (6.7 x 10(8) counts/ml). No culturable counts of C. difficile were obtained, nor was toxin A detected. CONCLUSIONS: Fermentable fibers support the growth of indigenous intestinal bacteria, particularly acidogenic bacteria, and yield large amounts of short-chain fatty acids with decreased gut pH. These factors contribute to the prevention of growth and toxin elaboration by C. difficile.

PMID: 7839098 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=7839098

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New list of the 20 most antioxidant-rich foods new
      #88764 - 07/11/04 02:26 PM
HeatherAdministrator

Reged: 12/09/02
Posts: 7795
Loc: Seattle, WA

Berries, Beans Top 'Best Antioxidants List'

By E.J. Mundell
HealthDay Reporter
From HealthDayNews

June 28 2004 — A variety of veggies, fruits and nuts battled it out this month for the top spot on a new list of the 20 most antioxidant-rich foods, ranked by nutrition scientists at the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

In the end, small red beans won the day, narrowly beating out wild blueberries as the food with the highest concentration of disease-fighting compounds per serving.

Antioxidants fight damage to cells from rogue molecules called "free radicals." Experts believe this assault on cells may fuel killer diseases such as heart disease and cancer, and even aging itself.

The new Top 20 list, published in the June issue of the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, "is a relative ranking of the capacity of foods to interfere with or prevent oxidative processes and to scavenge free radicals," explained list co-creator Ronald L. Prior, a USDA nutritionist and research chemist based in Little Rock, Ark.

Prior and his colleagues used the most advanced technologies available to tabulate antioxidant levels in more than 100 different types of fruits, vegetables, berries, nuts and spices.

Their Top 20:


1) Small red beans (dried).
2) Wild blueberries.

3) Red Kidney beans.

4) Pinto beans.

5) Blueberries (cultivated).

6) Cranberries.

7) Artichokes (cooked).

8) Blackberries.

9) Prunes.

10) Raspberries.

11) Strawberries.

12) Red Delicious apples.

13) Granny Smith apples.

14) Pecans.

15) Sweet cherries.

16) Black plums.

17) Russet potatoes (cooked).

18) Black beans (dried).

19) Plums.

20) Gala apples.


There's "still a lot we haven't learned" about why some foods are richer in antioxidants than others, Prior said. Even though the small red bean came out on top, "we don't have a lot of information on beans," he added.

Berries are better understood. "The components that contribute a lot of the antioxidant activity are what are called anthocyanins, the compounds that give many berries their dark blue color," he said.

Food Color Makes a Difference


In fact, color may be key to spotting foods that fight free radicals, said Roberta Anding, an American Dietetic Association spokeswoman and a nutritionist at Texas Children's Hospital in Houston.

"If you're looking for the best places to get antioxidants, I will usually tell folks to look at the colors of the rainbow," she added.

For example, "you'll find lutein with some of the yellow pigments found in corn; orange can be the pigments from the carotenoid family that are found in cantaloupe, butternut squash and mango; red could come from things like lycopene, found in tomatoes and watermelon. And then the darker colors — the purples, blues, in berries," she said.

But Prior cautioned that just because a food has proven to be antioxidant-rich in the USDA's lab, that doesn't mean all those nutrients will be successfully absorbed by the human digestive tract.

"As we learn more and more, we're finding that, depending on the chemical makeup of antioxidants in different foods, some of them aren't apparently absorbed as well, or else they are metabolized in a form where they are no longer antioxidants," he said.

Whether a food is eaten fresh, frozen, processed or cooked can also affect its antioxidant potency — for good or ill, he said. Blueberries are best when eaten fresh rather than cooked in a pie, for example. On the other hand, research has shown that gentle cooking raises the antioxidant power of tomatoes, he noted.

Although experts are working hard on the project, ongoing efforts to come up with daily dietary guidelines for antioxidant consumption will be "a long process," Prior said.

"How antioxidants behave, how they act within the body, the dose-response — we just don't know enough about it," he said.

For her part, Anding said people shouldn't get too hung up on gorging on one particular food, but "cast your net widely," eating generous daily servings of a variety of fruits, vegetables and other wholesome foods.

Looking over the USDA's list, Anding suggested creating what she called an antioxidant "power salad."

First, she said, "put together a salad with a variety of mixed greens. Then I'd throw in some dried cranberries or blueberries from the health food store, toss in a few nuts, with a low-fat salad. Again — choosing from the colors of the rainbow."


http://abcnews.go.com/sections/living/Healthology/Antioxidants_list_healthday.html

--------------------
Heather is the Administrator of the IBS Message Boards. She is the author of Eating for IBS and The First Year: IBS, and the CEO of Heather's Tummy Care. Join her IBS Newsletter. Meet Heather on Facebook!

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Alpha-Linoleic Acid in Walnuts Good for Cardiovascular Health new
      #92814 - 07/24/04 02:02 PM
HeatherAdministrator

Reged: 12/09/02
Posts: 7795
Loc: Seattle, WA

Walnuts are one of the most nutritious whole food
sources of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), an essential omega-3 fatty
acid. Walnut consumption has been proven to significantly lower total
cholesterol levels as well as LDL or "bad" cholesterol levels.
Recently-published research also shows including walnuts in the diet
can improve vascular function, which can aid in the prevention of
heart disease and stroke.

Additional promising research from Penn State showing an ALA diet to
improve vascular function was reported May 6 at the American Heart
Association's 5th Annual Conference on Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis,
and Vascular Biology in San Francisco. Lead author Sheila G. West,
Ph.D. says, "Our findings suggest that the special kind of fatty
acids that are present in walnuts can improve the function of arteries
and allow them to dilate better."

Many researchers cite the special combination of nutrients in walnuts
as accounting for these beneficial effects. In addition to providing a
significant concentration of ALA, walnuts contain many vitamins,
minerals, protein, fiber, melatonin, L-arginine and several other
important nutrients.

ALA is essential for optimal function of every cell in our bodies but
since our bodies can't create this "good" fat, we have to get it
from the foods we eat. The National Academy of Sciences recommends a
daily intake of 1.6 and 1.1 grams of ALA for men and women
respectively. With 2.5 grams of ALA, one ounce of walnuts more than
fulfills this requirement.

Based on a decade of evidence supporting the health benefits of
walnuts, the FDA affirmed a qualified health claim for walnuts (the
first for a whole food) in March 2004.

http://www.walnuts.org


--------------------
Heather is the Administrator of the IBS Message Boards. She is the author of Eating for IBS and The First Year: IBS, and the CEO of Heather's Tummy Care. Join her IBS Newsletter. Meet Heather on Facebook!

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