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Red meat linked to Barrett’s esophagus risk new
      #370136 - 09/06/13 12:03 PM
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Barrett's esophagus risk linked to heavy consumption of meat, fats

Jiao L. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2013;doi:10.1111/apt.12459.

eptember 3, 2013

Patients who consumed the largest amounts of meat and saturated fats were at the greatest risk for developing Barrett's esophagus in a recent case-control study.


Researchers administered the 110-item Block food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to 151 patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE) and 777 controls. Consumption of carboxymethyl lysine (CML) advanced glycation end-products (AGE) was determined for 216 foods included in the FFQ.

All participants were aged 40 to 80 years and had been treated at a medical facility in Houston between February 2008 and July 2011. Controls included patients who received elective esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) (endoscopy controls; n=521) and patients who received EGD during a screening colonoscopy (colonoscopy controls; n=256).

Mean CML-AGE consumption did not differ significantly between groups (6,871 KU/1,000 Kcal for cases vs. 6,803 KU/1,000 Kcal for controls; P=.73). Investigators noted significant positive correlations between CML-AGE consumption and consumption of total meat (r=0.61) and fat (r=0.54), cholesterol (r=0.56), saturated fat (r=0.53), protein (r=0.51) and eggs (r=0.27), while an inverse but not significant correlation was observed with dark green vegetables (r=–0.05, P=.13).

BE patients were more likely than controls to consume greater amounts of meat (OR=1.91; 95% CI, 1.07-3.38 for highest vs. lowest intake tertile) and saturated fat (OR=1.8; 95% CI, 1.02-3.16), while BE risk was numerically but nonsignificantly elevated with CML-AGE consumption (OR=1.63; 95% CI, 0.96-2.76). Adjustment for CML-AGE consumption attenuated the total meat (OR=1.61; 95% CI, 0.82-3.16) and saturated fat (OR=1.54; 95% CI, 0.81-2.94) associations with BE.

Li Jiao, MD, PhD

Li Jiao

"Higher intake of total meats and saturated fat may be associated with increased risk of [BE]," researcher Li Jiao, MD, PhD, department of medicine at Baylor College of Medicine, told Healio.com. "[AGE] and proinflammatory and pro-oxidant compounds found in meats may partially explain such an association."

Jiao said a previous study suggested an inverse association between BE risk and consumption of dark green vegetables. "These two studies should prompt clinicians to advise their patients with GERD [to follow] a prudent diet that includes more consumption of leafy vegetables and less meats and fats," he said.

http://www.healio.com/gastroenterology/esophagus/news/online/%7B734fe4b6-e99e-41c3-a37f-38a8aa1e88cf%7D/barretts-esophagus-risk-linked-to-heavy-consumption-of-meat-fats

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Non-Celiac Wheat Sensitivity in IBS May Be a Food Allergy new
      #370614 - 11/13/13 12:02 PM
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Non-Celiac Wheat Sensitivity May Be an Allergy

Last Updated: November 08, 2013.

Non-celiac wheat sensitivity may be a non-immunoglobulin E-mediated food allergy, according to a review published online Nov. 5 in the American Journal of Gastroenterology.

FRIDAY, Nov. 8 (HealthDay News) -- Non-celiac wheat sensitivity (NCWS) may be a non-immunoglobulin E-mediated food allergy, according to a review published online Nov. 5 in the American Journal of Gastroenterology.

Antonio Carroccio, M.D., from the University of Palermo in Italy, and colleagues reviewed both the literature and data collected from 276 patients diagnosed with NCWS during a double-blind placebo-controlled wheat challenge. The role of serum immunoglobulin G antibodies and the basophil activation assay in food allergy, as well as histology findings in the food allergy diagnosis, were reviewed.

When comparing patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) not due to NCWS and patients suffering from NCWS and IBS, the researchers found that NCWS was significantly associated with a personal history of food allergy in the pediatric age (P = 0.01), coexistent atopic diseases (P = 0.0001), positive serum anti-gliadin (P = 0.0001) and anti-betalactoglobulin (P = 0.001) antibodies, positive cytofluorimetric assay revealing in-vitro basophil activation by food antigens (P = 0.0001), and a presence of eosinophils in the intestinal mucosa biopsies (P = 0.0001).

"NCWS can now be considered the cause of gastrointestinal symptoms, which overlap those commonly attributed to functional disorders," Carroccio said in a statement. "However, many doubts remain and it must be underlined that we must utilize the double-blind placebo-controlled challenge method to confirm the suspicion of NCWS and then study the pathogenesis of that specific clinical manifestation. A confident NCWS diagnosis must exclude a placebo effect."


Copyright © 2013 HealthDay.

http://www.doctorslounge.com/index.php/news/pb/42292

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Chowing Down On Meat, Dairy Alters Gut Bacteria A Lot new
      #370711 - 12/11/13 02:20 PM
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NPR

Chowing Down On Meat, Dairy Alters Gut Bacteria A Lot, And Quickly

by Michaeleen Doucleff
December 11, 2013 1:34 PM


Looks like Harvard University scientists have given us another reason to walk past the cheese platter at holiday parties and reach for the carrot sticks instead: Your gut bacteria will thank you.

Switching to a diet packed with meat and cheese — and very few carbohydrates — alters the trillions of microbes living in the gut, scientists Wednesday in the journal Nature.

The change happens quickly. Within two days, the types of microbes thriving in the gut shuffle around. And there are signs that some of these shifts might not be so good for your gut: One type of bacterium that flourishes under the meat-rich diet has been linked to inflammation and intestinal diseases in mice.

"I mean, I love meat," says microbiologist , who contributed to the study and is now at Duke University.

"But I will say that I definitely feel a lot more guilty ordering a hamburger ... since doing this work," he says.
While no one's sure which foods are good for our microbiomes, eating more veggies can't hurt.
Dreaming of slimming gut microbes?
Benjamin Arthur for NPR

Scientists are just beginning to learn about how our decisions at the dinner table — or the drive-through — tweak our microbiome, that is, the communities of bacteria living in our bodies. But one thing is becoming clear: The critters hanging out in our intestine influence many aspects of our health, including weight, immunity and perhaps even .

And interest in studying the links between is growing. Previous research in this field had turned up tantalizing evidence that eating fiber can alter the composition of gut bacteria. But these studies had looked at diets over long periods of times — months and even years. David and his colleagues wanted to know whether fiber — or lack of it — could alter gut bacteria more rapidly.

To figure that out, the researchers got nine volunteers to go on two extreme diets for five days each.

The first diet was all about meat and cheese. "Breakfast was eggs and bacon," David says. "Lunch was ribs and briskets, and then for dinner, it was salami and prosciutto with an assortment of cheeses. The volunteers had pork rinds for snacks."

Then, after a break, the nine volunteers began a second, fiber-rich diet at the other end of the spectrum: It all came from plants. "Breakfast was granola cereal," David says. "For lunch, it was jasmine rice, cooked onions, tomatoes, squash, garlic, peas and lentils." Dinner looked similar, and the volunteers could snack on bananas and mangoes.

"The animal-based diet is admittedly a little extreme," he says. "But the plant-based diet is one you might find in a developing country."

David and the team analyzed the volunteers' microbiomes before, during and after each diet. And the effects of all that meat and cheese were immediately apparent.

"The relative abundance of various bacteria species looked like it shifted within a day after the food hit the gut," David says. After the volunteers had spent about three days on each diet, the bacteria in the gut even started to change their behavior. "The kind of genes turned on in the microbes changed in both diets," he says.

In particular, microbes that "love bile" — the Bilophila — started to dominate the volunteers' guts during the animal-based diet. Bile helps the stomach digest fats. So people make more bile when their diet is rich in meat and dairy fats.

A study last year that blooms of Bilophila cause inflammation and colitis in mice. "But we didn't measure levels of inflammation in our subjects," David says. "That's the next step."

Instead, he says, his team's data support the overall animal model that Bilophila promotes inflammation, which could ultimately be controlled by diet.

"Our study is a proof of concept that you can modify the microbiome through diet," David says. "But we're still a long ways off from being able to manipulate the community in any kind of way that an engineer would be pleased about."

Even just classifying Bilophila as "bad bacteria" is a tricky matter, says Dr. , a gastroenterologist at the Mayo Clinic in Minnesota.

"These bacteria are members of a community that have lived in harmony with us for thousands of years," says Kashyab, who wasn't involved in the study. "You can't just pick out one member of this whole team and say it's bad. Most bacteria in the gut are here for our benefit, but given the right environment, they can turn on us and cause disease."

Nevertheless, Kashyab thinks the Nature study is exciting because the findings unlock a potentially new avenue for treating intestinal diseases. "We want to look at diet as a way of treating patients," Kashyab says. "This study shows that short-term dietary interventions can change microbial composition and function."

Of course, figuring out exactly how to do that will take much more research.

"The paper has made the next leap in the field," Kashyab says. "With discovery comes responsibility. Once you make this big finding, it needs to be tested appropriately."

http://www.npr.org/blogs/thesalt/2013/12/10/250007042/chowing-down-on-meat-and-dairy-alters-gut-bacteria-a-lot-and-quickly

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Popular blood type diet debunked new
      #370798 - 01/17/14 11:51 AM
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15-Jan-2014

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Contact: Michael kennedy
m.kennedy@utoronto.ca
416-946-5025
University of Toronto
Popular blood type diet debunked

Researchers from the University of Toronto (U of T) have found that the theory behind the popular blood type diet--which claims an individual's nutritional needs vary by blood type--is not valid. The findings are published this week in PLoS One.

"Based on the data of 1,455 study participants, we found no evidence to support the 'blood-type' diet theory," said the senior author of the study, Dr. Ahmed El-Sohemy, Associate Professor and Canada Research Chair in Nutrigenomics at the U of T.

"The way an individual responds to any one of these diets has absolutely nothing to do with their blood type and has everything to do with their ability to stick to a sensible vegetarian or low-carbohydrate diet," said El-Sohemy.

Researchers found that the associations they observed between each of the four blood-type (A, B, AB, O) diets and the markers of health are independent of the person's blood type.

The 'blood-type' diet was popularized in the book Eat Right for Your Type, written by naturopath Peter D'Adamo. The theory behind the diet is that the ABO blood type should match the dietary habits of our ancestors and people with different blood types process food differently. According to the theory, individuals adhering to a diet specific to one's blood type can improve health and decrease risk of chronic illness such as cardiovascular disease. The book was a New York Times best-seller that has been translated into 52 languages and sold over 7 million copies.

The U of T researchers took an existing population of mostly young and healthy adults who provided detailed information about their usual diets and provided fasting blood that was used to isolate DNA to determine their ABO blood type and the level of cardiometabolic risk factors, such as insulin, cholesterol and triglycerides. Diet scores were calculated based on the food items listed in Eat Right for Your Type to determine relative adherence to each of the four 'blood-type' diets.

El-Sohemy says that a previous lack of scientific evidence doesn't mean the diets didn't work. "There was just no evidence, one way or the other. It was an intriguing hypothesis so we felt we should put it to the test. We can now be confident in saying that the blood type diet hypothesis is false." Last year, a comprehensive review published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition found no evidence to support the 'blood-type' diet and called for properly designed scientific studies to address it.

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2014-01/uot-pbt011514.php

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Soda pop and IBS new
      #370979 - 03/11/14 02:11 PM
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Soda pop and IBS

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Dairy and IBS new
      #370980 - 03/11/14 02:12 PM
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Dairy and IBS

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IBS diet quick tip - HOW to eat for IBS new
      #371038 - 04/01/14 04:25 PM
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IBS diet quick tip - HOW to eat for IBS

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White bread good for the gut new
      #371249 - 06/24/14 12:03 PM
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Pilot Study of Diet and Microbiota: Interactive Associations of Fibers and Polyphenols with Human Intestinal Bacteria

Adriana Cuervo †, Lorena Valdés ‡, Nuria Salazar ‡, Clara G. de los Reyes-Gavilán ‡, Patricia Ruas-Madiedo ‡, Miguel Gueimonde ‡, and Sonia González *†
† Department of Functional Biology, Facultad de Medicina, University of Oviedo, C/Julián Claverı́a s/n, 33006 Oviedo, Asturias, Spain
‡ Department of Microbiology and Biochemistry of Dairy Products, Instituto de Productos Lácteos de Asturias − Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientı́ficas (IPLA-CSIC), Paseo Rı́o Linares s/n, 33300 Villaviciosa, Asturias, Spain
J. Agric. Food Chem., 2014, 62 (23), pp 5330–5336
DOI: 10.1021/jf501546a
Publication Date (Web): May 23, 2014
Copyright © 2014 American Chemical Society
*(S.G.) Phone: +34 985 10 42 09. Fax: +34 985 10 35 34.



Several studies have addressed the use of dietary fibers in the modulation of intestinal microbiota; however, information about other highly correlated components in foods, such as polyphenols, is scarce.

The aim of this work was to explore the association between the intake of fibers and polyphenols from a regular diet and fecal microbiota composition in 38 healthy adults. Food intake was recorded using an annual food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Quantification of microbial populations in feces was performed by quantitative PCR.

A negative association was found between the intake of pectins and flavanones from oranges and the levels of Blautia coccoides and Clostridium leptum.

By contrast, white bread, providing hemicellulose and resistant starch, was directly associated with Lactobacillus. Because some effects on intestinal microbiota attributed to isolated fibers or polyphenols might be modified by other components present in the same food, future research should be focused on diet rather than individual compounds.

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jf501546a

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FODMAPS diet reduces good gut bacteria levels new
      #371324 - 08/04/14 04:25 PM
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Posts: 7795
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The Journal of Nutrition
Nutrition and Disease
Fermentable Carbohydrate Restriction Reduces
Luminal Bifidobacteria and Gastrointestinal
Symptoms in Patients with Irritable
Bowel Syndrome

Full article:

http://jn.nutrition.org/content/early/2012/06/26/jn.112.159285.full.pdf

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Rapid increase in IBD caused by dietary trigger?
      #371525 - 10/07/14 02:34 PM
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Review identifies patient-targeted dietary recommendations for IBD

Hou JK. J Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014;12:1592-1600.

September 26, 2014

The recent, rapid increase in the incidence and prevalence of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease suggests an environmental trigger for inflammatory bowel disease, one of which could potentially be dietary, according to a recently published review.

Researchers reviewed the limited evidence behind patient-targeted dietary information for IBD from Internet searches and popular defined diets and summarized the data supporting the rationale for dietary intervention and the recommendations of poorly evidenced, popular diets.

Diet's effect on gut inflammation

Mechanisms of dietary influence on gut inflammation may include direct dietary antigens, changes in gut microbiota and increased gastrointestinal permeability, the researchers wrote. Studies that support these disease mechanisms have shown:

IBD development is consistently associated with dietary fatty acid and protein composition.
Dietary fiber has been associated with lower risk for CD but not UC (HR=0.59; 95% CI, 0.39-0.9).
Recurrence of CD "inflammation after ileal resection is dependent on exposure of the neoterminal ileum to the fecal contents."
High-fat diets may increase bowel permeability through changes in the gut microbiome.
UC relapse is associated with greater consumption of meat (especially red and processed), eggs, protein and alcohol, and UC endoscopic activity is associated with sulfite consumption.
Exclusive enteral nutrition induces mucosal healing and prolonged clinical remission of CD but not UC
Exclusion diets have improved disease activity and prolonged time to relapse.

Patient-targeted diet recommendations

The review did not advocate any particular diet, but compiled the details and theories behind three defined diets commonly supported in lay literature: the specific carbohydrate diet (SCD), the fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides and monosaccharides (FODMAP) diet, and the Paleolithic diet.

The SCD is based on the theory that disaccharide and polysaccharide carbohydrates are poorly absorbed by the GI tract, causing overgrowth of bacteria and yeast that lead to excess mucus and small bowel injury. The diet restricts all but simple carbohydrates, or the monosaccharides glucose, fructose and galactose.

The FODMAP diet also is based on the notion that poorly absorbed carbohydrates cause bacterial overgrowth, but unlike the SCD, it restricts many fruits and vegetables.

The Paleolithic diet is based on the hypothesis that foods that were not present when human beings evolved can lead to modern diseases due to the GI tract's inability to handle foods resulting from modern agriculture. This diet emphasizes lean game meats and noncereal plant-based foods.

There are no formal studies published about SCD or Paleo, but small pilot studies have tested FODMAP in patients with IBD, one that showed improved IBD symptoms (P<.02).

How to advise patients

"There is scientific evidence that dietary factors may influence both the risk of developing IBD and intestinal mucosal inflammation," the researchers concluded. "However, there is a lack of large prospective controlled trials to provide the dietary recommendations patients desire. Taken together, studies of exclusive enteral nutrition, exclusion diets, and semivegetarian diets suggest that minimizing exposure of the intestinal lumen to selected food items may prolong the remission state of patients with IBD. Even less evidence exists for the efficacy of the SCD, FODMAP, or Paleo diets."

http://www.healio.com/gastroenterology/inflammatory-bowel-disease/news/online/%7B58142a64-b85a-4155-b4ab-9fa18ef0f8e0%7D/review-identifies-patient-targeted-dietary-recommendations-for-ibd

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